Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. All Muslim societies are affected by it, although there are large differences among them in terms of its presence and power. It was only after the Arab-Muslim conquests of the eastern and southern Mediterranean in the seventh century a.d. that this Mediterranean-wide economy was disrupted by the Islamic conquest. What should be analyzed is the crisis that is political Islam, as in Algeria. Crone, Patricia 1996 "The Rise of Islam in the World." This hypothesis, advanced by Samuel Huntington (1993), holds that whereas in the pre–Cold War era military and political conflicts occurred within the Western civilizations, after the end of the Cold War the conflict moved out of its Western phase and its centerpiece became the interaction between the West and non-Western civilizations and among non-Western civilizations. The relationship between modernization and religious purity can take two forms. The host societies are responding by promoting cultural pluralism and containing racism and xenophobic attitudes among some segments of their populations. This also contributed to the emergence of a divine being specifically linked to the regulation of nonkin relations as the chief deity. New York: Oxford University Press. It limited the disruptive exercise of kin-based mechanisms of blood feud. The undifferentiated state–religion configuration characterized a small number of Middle Eastern societies. Their influence has shaped the analytic approach to historical events, resulting in an increasing focus on the relationship between social and economic factors and historical events. Gellner (1983) describes Weber's notion about the affinity between the bourgeoise style of life and religious sobriety and asceticism as "a piece of Judaeo-Protestant ethnocentricism" (Gellner 1983, p. 78). Ahluwalia, P., and P. L. Mayer, 1994 "Clash of Civilisations— or Balderdash of Scholars." An important strand of historical scholarship has focused on the relationship between Islam and the rise of the modern West. It was out of the tribes that the forming impulses of Islamic civilization in Morocco came and stamped their mentality on future developments. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Economy and Society 24(2): 151–188. In this respect, it has occupied an important place in the theoretical discourse of a number of theorists from Ibn Khaldun and Weber to Gellner. Saint cults are prominent in the tribal or rural countryside and provide invaluable services in rural conditions: mediating between groups, facilitating trade and exchanges, and providing symbolism that allows illiterate rustics believers to identify enthusiastically with a scriptural religion. These injunctions brought about significant improvements in the status of women in a wide range of public and private spheres, but most important, they gave women a full-fledged personality (Rahman 1966). It is beyond the scope of this article to provide an exhaustive overview of how Muslim society and Islam have been treated in social theory (for studies of the Islamic revolution in Iran, see Shariati 1979; Fischer 1980; Arjonaud 1988). Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. London: Rosenthal. Ali, Chiragh 1970 "The Position of Women in Aziz Ahmad and E. von Grunebaum, eds., Muslim Self-Statement in India and Pakistan 1857–1968. Along with the husband-wife relationship the parent-child relationship is the most important one. This sanction may be provided by a powerful individual imposing his will on the rest or by social solidarity. Similar findings have been reported in studies of Muslim communities in Australia (Hassan 1991; Bouma 1994). The following topics will be covered in this article: social, ideological, and economic factors in the origins of Islam; Islam and the rise of the modern West; Islam, Muslim society, and social theory; Islam and fundamentalism; the Islamic state; gender issues in Muslim societies; and, Muslim minorities in the West. Like Gellner, Geertz has made significant contributions to the sociology of Islam through his anthropological studies, in this case of religious life in Indonesia and Morocco. The support for fundamentalism is embedded in the consciousness, which fully accepts the traditional worldview and wants to maintain it intact.". Finally, the crisis of contemporary Islam should be evaluated, in which the central questions troubling the Muslim world are the construction of a democratic space and the acknowledgment of human rights – the rights of the individual and religious freedom. Send subscription request to email@example.com. The social structure was highly differentiated and developed, and when Islam came, its expression was influenced profoundly by the context. London: Pluto Press. The need for a common authority generates the state, which is to society as form is to matter and is inseparable from it. Hardacre, Helen 1993 "The Impact of Fundamentalisms on Women, the Family and Interpersonal Relations" in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds. 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