Russia lost little territory under the treaty, and Alexander made use of his alliance with Napoleon for further expansion. Münnich introduced regiments of hussars (light cavalry staffed mostly by Eastern European foreigners) to complement the irregular cossacks with regular troops. Along with his liberal policies towards the lower classes, and his discovery of corruption in the treasury, his zeal for reform sealed his fate. Charles XII elected his own candidate to the Polish throne in 1704, and spent the next three years chasing down Augustus II, now fleeing west towards his native Saxony. Sardinia, United Kingdom The Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky guard regiments, which had associated with Catherine during her trips alongside her husband during his later military campaigns, decided the issue by demonstrating in Catherine's support. In October 1708Hetman Ivan Ma… The Swedish Empire was carved up, and its position as a great power was taken by Russia. Nov 25, 2020 - Austrian forces. These two regiments contained the core of the Russian nobility, and became training grounds for young nobles, who served as rank-and-file soldiers to learn military life before becoming officers elsewhere.  A 2010 census shows that a third of Russia's 153,000 villages have a population of fewer than 10 residents. 'Battle of Lesnaya' by Jean-Marc Nattier (1717) In 1707 King Charles XII of Sweden invaded Russia from Sweden hoping to capture Moscow. In short, the Privy Council was aiming to gut the power of the tsar and make the Russian Empire a de facto oligarchy. Russia In this plan, he faced a number of strategic obstacles. Fearing Napoleon's expansionist ambitions and the growth of French power, Alexander joined Britain and Austria against Napoleon. , Meanwhile, Peter prepared as well, moving his cavalry north to move on the Swedish left flank and also arranging his troops into a line. , Regardless, by the summer of 1708, Charles was positioned in Lithuania, facing a road directly towards Moscow. Because of the large distances involved, the Russian army would need a long supply train, and any one campaign would be vulnerable to getting cut off by actions against this baggage trail. 2010. None of Peter's other male children survived into adulthood. As a German delegate independent from the Russian nobility, he appealed to Anna, an appeal that Münnich used to ascend to presidency of the War College in 1732. Although she had two surviving daughters, Menshikov engineered the crowning of Peter's grandson, Peter II, as the new tsar. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia to compel Emperor Alexander I to remain in the Continental System and to remove the imminent threat of Russian invasion of Poland. Originally an outpost against the Swedes and Peter's "window to the west", the fortress would later grow into one of Russia's largest and most important population centers, and under Peter, Russia's capital.. Alexander's primary focus was not on domestic policy but on foreign affairs, and particularly on Napoleon. How the Russians switched from Empire to the Bolshevik Peace, Land, and Bread government: Russian Revolution of 1905 Russian Revolution of 1917 Russian Civil War 1917-1920. He moved his forces cautiously, at a pace that nearly proved disastrous. Its power enabled it to play an increasingly assertive role in Europe's affairs. , Overall, 1757 was a grim year for Fredrick. , Peter the Great was born on June 9, 1672, to Tsar Alexis I and his second wife Natalia Naryshkina. Peter scraped money to finance his new campaign out of every hole he could find, raising taxes, creating new ones, monopolizing the salt trade, and debasing the currency, anything he could do to raise more cash. , The epoch of Russian history that Peter created has been variously known as the Imperial Age, because of the new connection between the ruler and land; the St. Petersburg Era, as the capital was moved to the newly built Saint Petersburg during his reign; and the All-Russian Period, which stresses the greater hegemony founded in the previously xenophobic country. Paul's support for the ideals of the Knights Hospitaller (and his acceptance of the position of Grand Master) alienated many members of his court. In 1783 Catherine annexed the Crimea, helping to spark the next Russo-Turkish War with the Ottoman Empire, which began in 1787. The Swedish line broke and scattered, and 10,000 Swedes were killed or captured; most of the rest were captured on the banks of the Dnieper by Menshikov. He chose a spot at the mouth of the Neva, surrounded by marshes, to establish his fortress of Saint Petersburg. It was not until her death in 1694 that Peter finally assumed control of the state. The glitter and braid masked profound weaknesses that he did not see. With characteristic energy, he quickly rebuilt his army. Once securely on the throne, however, Elizabeth rejected the terms and direct her military against the woefully unprepared Swedes. TBILISI, Georgia (AP) — Europe's top human rights court on Thursday found Russia responsible for a swathe of violations in Georgia's breakaway regions after the 2008 Russia-Georgia war. Under Ottoman power, Turkey controlled the area of the Crimean Tatars at the mouth of the Sea of Azov. Peter was considerably more healthy then his half-brothers, both of which had serious physical disabilities. At the same time, Russia continued its expansion. The Battle of Narva, as it came to be called, was a crushing defeat for Peter's young army, with the vast majority of the Russian forces destroyed and nearly all of its siege equipment captured. No one else dared defect, and Ukraine remained firmly under Peter's control. Peter the Great fully appreciated the importance of the battle's outcome, and made sure to thank the captured Swedes for their "lessons". This plan was hampered in September 1708 when the Russians captured Swedish supplies and reinforcements at the Battle of Lesnaya in modern-day Belarus. East Prussia was lightly garrisoned, and should not have been a significant threat to the 100,000 strong Russian force, led by Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin. Now enjoying a temporary lull in the Great Northern War thanks to Poltava, Peter was quick, indeed eager, to move south. , The short reigns of both Catherine and Peter II were marked by the slow degradation of the Russian army and navy. , Domestically, Peter contributed one last major element to Russia before his death in 1725: his Table of Ranks. Mongol conquest • Grand Duchy of Moscow, February Revolution • Provisional Government He also vastly improved and expanded his siege artillery, and later, introduced light artillery. The gesture did not save Biron from the many enemies he had made over the course of Anna's rule, and he was exiled to Siberia within three weeks of her death. This history stretches from its creation in 1721 by Peter the Great, until the Russian Revolution (1917), which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union. Much of the related events involve the Imperial Russian Army, Imperial Russian Navy, and from the early twentieth century, the Imperial Russian Air Service. He left his throne to his 15-year-old son, Charles XII. Realizing that further advances were futile, by late summer Fredrick had turned his attention squarely back towards the Russians. His trip was stopped short of a planned passage through Italy by news of a streltsy rebellion at home, and Peter rushed back to Russia in 1698, along with 750 foreigners he had recruited for Russian industry. This is a list of wars involving France and its predecessor states. Defeat. In addition, in 1722 he had declared that the naming of an heir was the tsar's choice, not a matter of genealogy. He fought expansive wars against his neighbors, squeezing every resource at his disposal to power his war machine, and send large numbers of young men west, to learn the trades and skills that Russia would need in the future. The Decembrist Revolt was the first open breach between the government and liberal elements, a breach that would subsequently widen. In the same year Alexander initiated the creation of the Holy Alliance, a loose agreement pledging the rulers of the nations involved—including most of Europe—to act according to Christian principles. , By spring 1711 Peter was ready. Many were exiled to Siberia. Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians. , As the French retreated, the Russians pursued them into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris. Curtiss finds that "The pedantry of Nicholas' military system, which stressed unthinking obedience and parade ground evolutions rather than combat training, produced ineffective commanders in time of war." The remainder of the rebellion was mopped up by 1709. Realizing the opportunity, Fredrick sidestepped his French allies and signed the Treaty of Westminster with Britain in 1756. Following the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War with the Ottoman Empire in 1768, the parties agreed to the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji in 1774. Such a maneuver required precise timing and great skill, things his highly skilled army very much possessed. The Army became the vehicle of upward social mobility for noble youths from non-Russian areas, such as Poland, the Baltic, Finland and Georgia. In the summer of 1705, an unknown monk and a member of the streltsy started a rebellion in Astrakhan against what they saw as the destructive influence of the nobility and foreign influence. At the same time, Alexander viewed the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, the French-controlled reconstituted Polish state, with suspicion. See main article on World War I, also see Eastern Front (World War I) and Caucasus Campaign, See main article on Russian Revolution of 1917, Campaigns and territorial changes 1700–1709 (left) and 1709–1721 (right). The plan was to have Poland move on southern Livonia and the Danes attack Swedish allies in Schleswig-Holstein. Sweden had declared war on Russia, moving troops towards Saint Petersburg. At sea, the prebuilt Russian fleet, which had proved useless when victory was still uncertain, was proving its worth at consolidating Russian victories; victories at Gangut in 1714, Ösel in 1719, and Grengam in 1720 gave Peter control of the sea. His position on his western and southern flanks was now temporarily secure, and British funds, impressed by the Prussian victories, were now pouring in again. February 1700 - Great Northern War: Fighting begins between Sweden, Russia, Demark, and Saxony 1701 - War of the Spanish Succession: Fighting begins as an alliance of Britain, the Holy Roman Empire , Dutch Republic, Prussia, Portugal, and Denmark declare war to prevent a French succession to the Spanish throne To Peter's satisfaction, the Swedes moved in exactly the way that he had anticipated. Agreement. Peter, meanwhile, could afford to be patient; the Swedes were marooned far from support or reinforcements, and were losing numbers every day. In late 1718, Charles XII himself was shot through the head in a minor battle, possibly by his own soldiers. Russia was backward economically compared to Western Europe, and Ivan's war created in him a desire for technical assistance from the West. Manchuria and Inner Mongolia are returned to China. The fate of the Ukrainians and Belarusians, who primarily worked as serfs, changed little at first under Russian rule. ", See main article on Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). As he grew older, these battles became more and more elaborate, including organized units, formations, and even live ammunition. Military victory. However, the situation proved to be a repeat of Peter the Great's campaign in 1711; once again the Russian's supply line was cut by encircling Turkish cavalry. , The first test of the Russian military strength in the post-Peter era, although not a very difficult one, was the War of the Polish Succession in 1733–1734. , The armed peace that Europe fell into did not last. Plagued with logistical problems, outdated military equipment and incompetent Russian officers, Russian forces suffered numerous defeats in the course of the war, which ended in September 1905, in the aftermath of the destruction of the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima. His commanders in the Crimean War were old and incompetent, and indeed so were his muskets as the colonels sold the best equipment and the best food. Most notoriously, he introduced a tax on beards, and forced churches to melt their bells to make cannons. West Russian Volunteer Army in September 1919, In support of: Tatarbunary Revolutionary Committee, Soviet Union United States United Kingdom China France Poland Canada Australia New Zealand India South Africa Yugoslavia Greece Denmark Norway Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Czechoslovakia Brazil Mexico, Germany Japan Italy Hungary Romania Bulgaria Slovakia Croatia Thailand Manchukuo Mengjiang, Location: Georgia, South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Lists of wars involving European countries, Janet Martin. Charles took on the burden of attack, once again counting on the steadiness and experience of his troops to break the Russian lines. As early as 1694, he established a dockyard in Archangel and built an entire ship by himself. The Swedes suffered only 700 casualties, while more than 6,000 Russian troops were killed and another 20,000 captured. The major fortress of Azov lay in the east and denied access to the Sea of Azov, and the Crimean Tatars controlled the whole of the north shore of the Black Sea. The Table, with minor changes, continued to find use until it was finally abolished in 1917. He now faced confrontation with three great powers with an empty treasury, and a monetary toll that the small Prussian population could ill afford. The remainder of the Russian troops were mopped up with ease; only three groups, Peter's elite troops and one light infantry brigade, actually put up a reasonable fighting retreat, using supply wagons as improvised defenses. 1897 - … His son, Aleksei, was a shy, bookish man with little interest in the throne, as well as a constant target for revolts aimed at undermining Peter's rule. Young officers who had pursued Napoleon into Western Europe came back to Russia with revolutionary ideas. The battle degenerated into disorganized attrition, and the two bloodied forces did not break off until night fell. Peter II himself died in 1730, succumbing to smallpox, again leaving no heir. The terms of the treaty fell far short of the goals of Catherine's reputed "Greek project": the expulsion of the Ottomans from Europe and the renewal of a Byzantine Empire under Russian control. By September 14, Moscow was captured although by this point it had been largely abandoned by the Russians and prisoners had been released from Moscow's prisons to inconvenience the French. Thus, Peter did not become a full general until after his victory at Poltava in 1709, and did not become full admiral until the conclusion of the Great Northern War more than a decade later. The Naryshkins, backing Peter, won an early victory, and Peter was proclaimed tsar in April 1682, with his mother as the acting regent. Russia's preoccupation with the war enabled Pugachev to take control of a part of the Volga area, but the regular army crushed the rebellion in 1774. [clarification needed] Noting her cousin's distaste for her and consolidating her control over the guards, Peter the Great's daughter, Elizabeth, executed a bloodless coup and took the throne. Regency was taken up by Ivan's mother Anna Leopoldovna. Map of the countries and their territories involved in the war. , Münnich, a tireless and power-hungry figure, had accumulated experience fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession before traveling to Russia and fighting during Peter's campaigns as an engineer. A key event in this instability was the sudden and meteoric rise of Prussia; under a series of careful and powerful kings, the state had consolidated power in upper Germany, and risen to a prominence far exceeding its actual land area. Münnich also introduced important changes in Russian cavalry. Yaroslav the Wise's conquests in Estonia are lost. The Swedes, with their empire broken and nothing left to lose, continued to fight. Peter began a round of conscription to fill out his ranks in late 1699, and a start date for the war was agreed upon in early 1700. Seeing that its ally would be crushed, France tried to mediate peace, but to no avail. However, while up to 80,000 women are estimated to have served with the Red Forces, the majority served in support roles as doctors, nurses, telephonists and clerks. United States On 19/30 August 1757, a Prussian force caught the Russians marching off-guard at the small village of Gross-Jägersdorf. , Peter's death left no clear candidate for succession to the throne. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was a major armed conflict that saw Russian arms largely victorious against the Ottoman Empire.Russia's victory brought Kabardia, part of Moldavia, the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.Though a series of victories accrued by the Russian Empire led to substantial … He grew increasingly adept at pulling manpower out of every available resource, including the clergy and enemy deserters. Great Northern War 1701 - 1721 During the Great Northern War, Russia acquired territory of modern Estonia and Latvia after decades of war with Sweden, establishing a naval presence in the Baltic Sea and 'window on Europe'. Regardless, after breaking a Saxony siege on Riga in the summer of 1701, Charles crossed into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The thought-of Cossack reinforcements proved to be illusory as well; although Mazepa defected to the Swedes, he only brought 3,000 troops with him. , The sudden growth of Prussia shifted the balance of power in Europe greatly. Austria signed peace with the Ottomans that year, and without an ally and unsure of further gains, Russia was decided to sign the Treaty of Niš and end its war. This so-called Diplomatic Revolution set the stage for the coming Seven Years' War, and Europe sunk into an uneasy peace. The campaign of 1700 ends ignominiously when the young Swedish king, Charles XII, defeats the Russians at Narva and regains the coastline. , The history of the Russian army in this era was linked to the name of Alexander Suvorov a Russian general, reckoned one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. Russian Revolution Timeline Grigory Y. Rasputin The Prussians threatened to do what the Swedes had done at Narva, roll through the frantically redeploying Russians and then crush their individual units. They harassed the reinforcements and supplies, and in the ensuing Battle of Lesnaya Peter's dragoons fought the Swedes to a standstill. , While war was intensifying in Europe, the sluggish Russian army was still slowly advancing towards its target, the militarily isolated East Prussia. He introduced a European dress code complete with knee-breeches, tricornes, and long coats. In 1813 Russia gained territory in the Baky area of the Caucasus at the expense of Persia. New officers were pulled out of the nobility in Russia and hired from abroad, and the replacement of soldiers lost at Narva was accomplished through heavy-handed conscription. , Russian forces first had to take a pair of watchtowers guarding heavy chains restricting Russian movements on the water, during which a successful sortie was launched by the Turks that captured many of the Russian siege engines. The army would again be strengthened for various small actions in the 1730s and 1740s, but the declining trend of the Russian navy was not reversed for centuries. Finally, it put Russia into direct contact with another of the great powers of Europe, Germany. He established Cadet Corps to train young nobles for military service, effectively replacing Peter's requirement that they serve in the ranks first, as well as reducing the military service requirement to 25 years—still a draconian demand, but considerably better than Peter's theoretically lifelong model. The war between Russia and the Japanese Empire broke out on February 8, 1904 with a Japanese attack upon the Russian Far East Fleet stationed at Port Arthur. Münnich landed a diversionary blow to the Turkish right flank, then massed troops on its right and smashed through the Turks, capturing the Turkish encampment, artillery, supplies, and the Khotyn Fortress on the upper Dnestr. Peter then moved north and invaded Finland in 1713. There are various definitions of Europe and in particular, there is a significant dispute about the … To circumvent this problem, in 1739 Münnich cut even further west of the west bank of the Black Sea, skirting through Poland before arriving at the Prut. , The six year respite proved critical for Peter the Great. Other Cossacks, various Turkic tribes that felt the impingement of the Russian centralizing state, and industrial workers in the Ural Mountains, as well as peasants hoping to escape serfdom, all joined in the rebellion. Apraksin was a well-connected diplomat in the tsarina's court with little true military experience. Austrian raids even reached Fredrick's capital city, Berlin. Serbia The conscription system was highly unpopular with people, as was the practice of forcing peasants to house the soldiers for six months of the year. Russia's westward expansion under Catherine resulted from the partitioning of Poland. By 1743, with Swedish defeat complete and fears of a coalition to defend Sweden growing, Elizabeth finally brought Sweden to the bargaining table. One of his key innovations was oblique battle order, whereupon he purposely overloaded one flank while weakening the other; if the weakened flank held, the stronger side would be able to break through the enemy and surround them. Seeing that he was unable to reclaim East Prussia, Fredrick turned his attention to the Austrians, invading the providence of Moravia. The Table was Peter's way of handling the appointment of nobility, as well as organizing Russian military positions; Peter had not appointed any new boyars, and the old honor code of mestnichestvo, which placed more stress on hereditary origins then on actual skill, had been rightfully abolished in 1682. He understood that the reason he had lost the first battle was Turkish control of the sea, so Peter commissioned the construction of a large fleet at Voronezh on the upper Don. Later, in January and February 1720, another Treaty of Stockholm was signed between Sweden and Brandenburg. However, he was recalled to the army in 1798–1799 Russian troops led by Suvorov performed brilliantly in Italy and Switzerland. The army dissolved annually during harvest seasons, and the only regular forces in the Russian army were the streltsy, a formally elite unit that had, by Peter's time, become a hereditary, ill-trained, ill-equipped force that garrisoned in Moscow and played more of a role in politics then in actual fighting. Sweden had additionally been egged on by French diplomats aiming to keep Russia out of the War of Austrian Succession. The Elector of Hanover was George I. German Empire (1918) The conflicting sides placed the blame for the fire on each other. The Swedes surrendered, and Lacy occupied both Helsingfors and the Finnish capital of Abo. Liberation of Manchuria, Inner Mongolia and northern Korea, and collapse of Japanese puppet states there. This history stretches from its creation in 1721 by Peter the Great, until the Russian Revolution (1917), which led to the establishment of the Soviet Union. On the other hand, many miscreants, petty criminals and undesirables were punished by local officials by enlisting them for life in the Army. More pragmatically, in 1814 Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia had formed the Quadruple Alliance. Choosing between Poland and Russia, Charles XII thought Russia to be the more dangerous threat, and led a small army of around 11,000 men into the besieged city in November. P. 25, List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Rus', First Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1492–1494), Second Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1500–1503), Third Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1507–1508), Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1512–1522), Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War (1534–1537), Persian Expedition of Catherine the Great, Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1929), Red Army intervention in Afghanistan (1930), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, South Vietnam is annexed by North Vietnam, Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, "Exploring Chinese History :: Politics :: Conflict and War :: Soviet Aggression", "9. Cambridge University Press, 2004. , Peter stressed evolution away from the streltsy and gentry cavalry, although he never discarded it entirely. Dutch Republic Saxony (1743–45) After a month of attrition, a force of 2,000 cossacks stormed the fort and, although rebuffed, captured part of its outer workings. Although the partitioning of Poland greatly added to Russia's territory and prestige, it also created new difficulties. As a result, Poland disappeared from the international political map. Fermor, a clean-cut and intelligent Baltic German and a student of Lacy and Münnich, made his soldiers' welfare one of his primary concerns. , Although Peter's "grand coalition" against the Turks had failed to develop, new political developments quickly brought his military attention to the north. Because of the large distances involved in the northern war, Peter also built up a large contingent of cavalry. Using the danger of radicalism as an excuse, the same three powers abrogated the constitution and in 1793 again stripped Poland of territory. Another reason for a war with Russia was the Russian interference with Swedish internal affairs. In the 1700s, a Russian woman gave birth to 16 sets of twins, 7 sets of triplets, and 4 sets of quadruplets all fathered by the same man in a period of 40 years. In the end, Menshikov overreached; his bold grabs at power alarmed the Russian nobility, and Peter, increasingly disliking Menshikov, allied himself with Prince Ivan Dolgorukov instead. This artillery then went on to play a pivotal role in the second Battle of Narva. (before 1569 the Polish–Lithuanian union), Augustus III of Poland Russia Austria Saxony Prussia, Stanisław Leszczyński France It thinly justified the war with support for Elizabeth's taking of the throne, and Elizabeth promised to cede certain Russian territories in return. The war had also bettered Russia's position with respect to its Polish rival, which came to a head much later under Catherine the Great with the First Partition of Poland. He had resorted to the ad-hoc appointment before, but by the time of the Great Northern War this was quickly proving tedious, necessitating the change. Czechoslovakia Officers were particularly incensed that Alexander had granted Poland a constitution while Russia remained without one. The King now saw Russia as a new target. However, edged on by France and by Charles XII, the Ottomans, at the time harboring an exiled Charles XII, declared war on Peter by 1710. France quickly shot back at Prussia by signing an alliance with Austria, an alliance that Russia, with the caveat of non-aggression against Poland, now joined. Shuvalov quickly eliminated the German dress that had been introduced under Münnich. However, the fort was constantly receiving supplies by water, and the attrition was hurting Peter's forces more than the Turks. In May 1703, Peter captured Nyenschantz fortress. She often elected favorites to important positions, regardless of their actual experience, and thus corruption ran rampart as many tried to accumulate personal wealth and influence. On 25 August 1758, following 2 hours of bombardment, the Prussian left engaged the Russians in what quickly became a murderous exchange of volleys. Menshikov was exiled to Siberia, where he died in 1729. Part of the retreating column, led by Menshikov, met a smaller Swedish detachment at Kalisz, and in the ensuing battle defeated it soundly. However, Charles was not aware of the additional four pieces of earthwork that Peter had dug on the eve of battle; to surmount this new problem, Charles spent valuable time rearranging his troops from firing lines, superb for volley fire, to faster-moving but less fire-ready columns, a time-consuming move that lost him the element of surprise he had hoped for earlier. Suvorov's leadership also played a key role in Russian victory over Poles during the Kościuszko Uprising.. , Peter returned to Moscow to find that the rebellion had already been dealt with. , Following Apraksin's removal, command of the Russian field forces was transferred to William Fermor. Peter came of age in a vast but technologically and socially backward country. He seized Viborg, Riga, and Reval in 1710. The Northern War left Russia as the dominant power in Northern Europe, and gave it firm control over the Baltic and thus a "window to the west". As a major European power, Russia could not escape the wars involving revolutionary and Napoleonic France. He proceeded to interrogate the streltsy, torturing many into revealing that they sympathized with his half-sister and former tsarina Sophia. Thousands of strelets were executed and hung in public, and Sophia, who had been exiled to a monastery near Moscow, was now forced to become a nun. Although he escaped with the majority of his forces intact, by the end of the year it was clear that the Prussian's military situation had not improved; rather, Frederick had lost many of his best troops, and the Russians and Austrians had demonstrated a newfound ability to nullify his tactics.. Germany , The next leading candidate to the throne, as chosen by the Privy Council, was Anna Ivanovna, who was the daughter of Peter's late brother Ivan V. The primary reason for their choice was her political weakness as a woman and widow, something that the Council moved aggressively to take advantage of; they declared that they would approve her crowning only if she gave up the power to make and amend taxes, declare war, control the army, grant and revoke estates, and appoint people to high positions in the government.