The Evil Eye. The "evil of an envier" is mentioned directly in the Qurʾān, but the belief in evil eye predates Islam, appearing in both the Bible and in Sumerian texts as early as five thousand years ago (Dundes, 1992). We believe that health issues impact on a wide range of economic and functional aspects of any economy which go way beyond the traditional view that health means hospitals. Inhorn, Marcia C. Local Babies, Global Science: Gender, Religion, and In Vitro Fertilization in Egypt. •During illness or crisis, Middle Eastern rely heavily on their “in-group” instead of trying to cope more individually as many Americans would. . Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. Historically prophetic me… In the 17th century, traditional Vietnamese and Chinese practitioners began identifying their medicine as Dong Y to distinguish their medicine from the Western colonial medicine. Through the zār they find a social etiology for their suffering (i.e., harmful spirits), a sense of community solidarity with other similarly afflicted women, and a way to press for demands (e.g., new clothing, jewelry, feasts) through the idiom of spirit possession and the invocation of these spirits through joyful music and dance. Encyclopedia of Religion. Firstly, the Middle East is the origin of many of the major world … Given the incredible diversity of the region, the Middle East is home to a rich armamentarium of popular healing practices delivered by multiple types of healers. Although pharaonic medicine and later yunāni medicine were extremely important literate medical traditions in this region of the world, this essay begins with a brief history of prophetic (Islamic) medicine, which arose during the period following the Prophet Muḥammad's death in 632 ce and which still represents an extremely influential healing tradition throughout the region. They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. Apart from being the largest religion in the Middle East, it is also one of the largest religions in the world. Islam; Pilgrimage, article on Muslim Pilgrimage. The Middle Eastern Health Inequality Paradox and the Gender Obesity Gap (2018) ALNohair, S. (2014) Obesity in Gulf Countries. Healing, both new and old, is clearly a rich area for future scholarship, as suggested by the brief examples provided in this essay. In 1988, this author went to a small Afghan hospital in Peshawar to visit one of my Afghan students who’d developed typhoid fever. When the vessel is placed over the flame, it extinguishes the flame and causes vapor to rise. In addition, the activities of the pilgrimage itself—including the respite from everyday routine; the exhilaration of travel to a spiritually "magnetic" center (Preston, 1992); the cathartic effects of unburdening one's "private heartaches" (Tapper, 1990) on a nonjudgmental but responsive holy one who can be requested to act on one's behalf; the ability to be part of a sympathetic, experienced community of female sufferers who often congregate at these shrines (Mernissi, 1977); and the ministrations of the living, barakah -bestowing shaikh s who often attend to these shrines and who pray and write healing amulets for suffering pilgrims—are part and parcel of the healing process. Indeed zār has been described by some scholars as a proto-feminist challenge to women's objectification and subordination (Boddy, 1989), a way to challenge authority and compensate for exclusion from formal religion in the Muslim world (Doumato, 2000). Pain Management in Middle Eastern Culture. In Mormons and Muslims, edited by Spencer J. Palmer, pp. Many of these records provide an exquisitely detailed account of the medical systems and accompanying ideologies that gained hegemony in this region through the millennia, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic milieus in which they existed (Gran, 1979; Inhorn Millar and Lane, 1988). Instructions. Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. 5 health threats facing the Middle East. Health beliefs and views of death predate European immigration and vary by tribe. Cautery may be used directly on the site of a patient's bodily complaint (e.g., lower back, arm or leg joints), or it may be used on other sites of the body to "tighten" relaxed nerves and muscles. For the masses of rural and urban poor people who visit these sites as pilgrims—given that healing pilgrimage of this sort tends to be a class-based phenomenon in the Middle East these dead saints are believed to radiate barakah, a living form of beneficial power associated with divine blessing, grace, or holiness that is transferable to their descendants, followers, and visitors (Biegman, 1990). Health care organizations must assure the competence of language assistance provided to limited English proficient patients by interpreters and bilingual staff. Social Science and Medicine 39 (1994b): 487–505. To accurately evaluate and understand the mental health issues of the Middle East, one must take into account the geographic, historical, cultural, and social influences of that part of the world. The exodus of Christians from the Middle East is real and tragic. The majority of people that make up the Middle East are we Arab Muslims who together share certain values, traditions, and old beliefs that are remarkably different from those of Westerners. Prophetic medicine was also popular with the people, for it incorporated traditional concepts and practices from Arab folk medicine, such as the writing of religious sayings in curative amulets, belief in the evil eye, and the practice of cupping (application of heated cups on the skin), all of which continue to be widely practiced in many parts of the Middle East in the early twenty-first century. Mental health conditions in the Middle East. It is these popular healing traditions and their connection to Islam that represent the substance of this brief essay. Berkeley, Calif., 1984. Providing culturally and linguistically competent care and education for their patients can be a challenge for home care and hospice clinicians, particularly those without access to the resources of a hospital library. In the early twenty-first century, amulets are widely used throughout the Middle East for three primary purposes: (1) to prevent the deleterious envy (evil eye) that can destroy objects and lead to illness; (2) to nullify acts of sorcery, which are also thought to cause illnesses such as impotence; and (3) on a more mundane level, to treat physical complaints, ranging from headaches to fever. RELIGION: Culture Awareness in Maternity: Middle Eastern Cultures Conception Postpartum Postpartum BREASTFEEDING Clinical Implications SOURCES: Many Middle Eastern Countries practice Islam Researching Middle Eastern practices is actually a look into Islamic Religion and Culture In other words, religion can be a protective factor against suicide. With rapidly growing economies linked to oil, tourism and the financial industry, countries in this area have a large population of expats from all around the world. Adib, Salim M. "From the Biomedical Model to the Islamic Alternative: A Brief Overview of Medical Practices in the Contemporary Arab World." Gran, Peter. Encyclopedia.com. %PDF-1.5 In the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Health Report issued in 2000, the UAE ranked 27 in the world for its performance. Family and friends should not be used to provide interpretation services (except on request by the patient/consumer). Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East (extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about 3000 to 330 bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area). According to medical historians, however, prophetic medicine was actually a syncretic blend of biblical Jewish medicine as contained in the Book of Leviticus ; Persian medicine as taught in the famous medical school of Gondeshapur, which was attended by several of the Prophet's relatives; nomadic Bedouin medicine as practiced in Arabia (particularly in Medina and Mecca) during the Prophet's lifetime; and Hippocratic-Galenic yunāni medicine from Greece. Ullman, Manfred. 7. Philadelphia, 1996. The Middle East is a fascinating region with complex cultures, religions, and relationships. Inhorn, Marcia C. Quest for Conception: Gender, Infertility, and Egyptian Medical Traditions. Similarly, people in the West began to use the term “Oriental medicine” to differentiate Eastern medical practices from Western ones. Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East and Central Asia: An Anthropological Approach. This article reviews Web sites that discuss the culture of the Middle East and provide access to patient education … The use of oriental has shifted to refer to home furnishings, carpets e… Religion; Menu. Despite widespread Western misconceptions about technological "backwardness" in the Middle Eastern world, the Middle East is home to thoroughly modern, high-tech, Western-based biomedicine, often delivered in gleaming private hospitals and medical centers throughout the region. HEALING ." Health care in the Middle East. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. Even though most of the inhabitants are Muslims, some practice Christianity. Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … In Women in the Muslim World, edited by Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie, pp. Gender, Sickness, and Healing in Rural Egypt: Ethnography in Historical Context. (January 12, 2021). Bakker, Jogien. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. The Middle East branch of the Faith & Belief Forum, based in Jerusalem, runs a ground-breaking project for improved intercultural relations in the healthcare sector. Although women are barred in many ways from formal public ritual practice, including participation in Friday communal prayers at mosques, many of the popular healing rituals and pilgrimages practiced in the Middle East are nonetheless carried out by women within the framework of the Islamic ritual cycle. Berkeley, Calif., 1973. As Peter Gran (1979) points out, the Ṣūfī cults and their shrines flourished in countries such as Egypt because they catered to the spiritual, psychological, and political needs of the lower classes as well as to their medical complaints. ." Dols, Michael W. Medieval Islamic Medicine: Ibn Ridwān's Treatise "On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt." Furthermore infertile women are considered to be dangerous to fertile women, especially those who are pregnant, who have demonstrated their reproductive success repeatedly, or who have finally achieved a coveted pregnancy through technological means such as in vitro fertilization. Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori, eds. The Middle East is home to a rich medical history and is one of the few regions of the world in which written materials concerning health-related ideologies, practices, and professional standards date back literally five thousand years. In many cases, pilgrimages and healing rituals are undertaken during the exact hour of the Friday communal noon prayer—the most important one in the Islamic weekly cycle of thirty-five prayers. Journal of Men's Studies 10 (2002): 343–359. Typically, ziyārāt to the mosque-tombs of blessed saints are journeys that women make alone, allowing them the opportunity to demonstrate their agency and independence. Although it is important to emphasize the rich diversity of popular healing practices in the Middle East, a number of main types of healing practices stand out as particularly relevant and representative of the region. And how far gone is the issue of obesity across Middle Eastern countries? Blog. While generalizations of Middle Eastern culture are readily apparent, some variation and extremes are found within the geographical area known as the Middle East. Nonetheless, prophetic medicine acquired great significance during later Islamic history and, in some cases, came to counter and supersede the then powerful yunāni medical system, which was suspected as being a science of heathen origin. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. Middle Eastern religion - Middle Eastern religion - Religious practices and institutions: Fertility of agriculture, of edible animals, and of the human population was a paramount factor in the life and religion of the ancient Middle East. The Middle Eastern diet falls under the category of a Mediterranean diet, which incorporates the foods and cuisines of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Indeed, it is women—not men—who are most actively involved in saint veneration and who are, therefore, the primary participants in the salvation-oriented ziyārāt to local and regional saints' tombs. Culture Name /Length 3990 Anthropological Perspectives, Health and Disease: IV. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. If Bahaism is the baby of the Middle East, then Zoroastrianism is the granddad of the group. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 82 (1988): 277–280. Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. Crapanzano, Vincent. Dundes, Alan, ed. Philosophical Perspectives, Health and Disease: V. The Experience of Health and Illness, Health and Human Services Department, United States, Health and Long-Term Care Program Integration. Ethnomedical therapies for female infertility in Egypt include vaginal suppositories with various herbal and mineral substances; cupping on the lower back; vapor sitz baths; cauterization of the skin with a heated rod; sewing of the skin of the lower back; wearing a belt and padlock; countershocking the infertile woman who has been shocked; sorcery nullification; spirit appeasement; and elaborate rituals for a culture-bound syndrome known in Egypt as mushāhara or kabsa, which is thought to be the major cause of infertility in women. Madison, Wis., 1992. Health beliefs can have a profound impact on the clinical care of Asian patients in the United States, affecting the accuracy of health histories and compliance with treatment recommendations from Western providers. ?Al��ƹ'?� �z�7yקE�=���A`�Պ?���6�Oυ�/&�|�*��N�N5u>��ݪ���ո�ȧk'I"Z�u���ުn�C��|�J� ���@^���"�$^bEIx��urx���%aL�$�v�t�Еp7���}�h��}z��Y�:��*�� �;L�]� �@F��ʹ3��|9~�$p>��3�c/��d�G�h,�̶�JK���@�'M����|'��s�PہǤ��i;+y�["9R��ql�G x0!cMq ������ i]��A��L��h@��1;����G�/��Gk)�]��\$}8�R��Xx�X��B?�|�Ǿ��!dzR������� ӧ�h����@77 d�Ӆ@�7�aw�2����z�x�O��>t�M�����i��\a%�� /����V�B��#��M]� �;�}�7m^��C���w��jN=ϳ������Z��M���?�z����. Use of herbs from native plants. •People close to patient consider it a duty to be there. In Changing Disease Patterns and Human Behaviour, edited by N. F. Stanley and R. A. Joske, pp. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Madison, Wis., 1989. Westport, Conn., 1992. It is not surprising, therefore, that previous traditions live on—not as organized medical systems per se, but rather as numerous syncretic healing philosophies characterized by a multifaceted array of etiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic beliefs and practices regarding the nature of health and illness and the treatment of various forms of sickness. Born in the heart of Persia over 3,000 years ago, Zoroastrianism is one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions. The forms that the fertility rites assumed varied from region to region, depending on climate and geography. PwC takes a highly holistic approach to the health industries sector in the Middle East. Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. We cling to the ancient teachings of curing mental issues and deny modern day approach, which sometimes people call the “Western world approach” to … From the early twentieth century until independence in 1960, the colony of Niger was part of French We…, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Tibet, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the Ancient near East, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the African Diaspora, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Judaism, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Japan, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Islamic Texts and Traditions, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Indigenous Australia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Greece and Rome, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Christianity, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in China, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Āyurveda and South Asia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Africa, Healing and Medicine: Alternative Medicine in the New Age, Healing and the Arts in Afro-Caribbean Cultures, Health and Disease: I. It is fair to conclude that Islam—at least in its more populist form—has always been a major influence on the healing practices, pilgrimages, and rituals that continue, unabated, among the poorer urban and rural communities in the Middle East in the early twenty-first century. For us, Islam is not only considered a religion but is also a way of living. Healers often provide special instructions on how the written amulet is to be utilized (e.g., in bath water, in drinking water, worn next to the body, slept on, stepped over, or burned with incense, which in and of itself is deemed protective against harmful forces). Boulder, Colo., 1993. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. stream New York, 2003. By the sixteenth-century, cults of popular Islamic mystics, known as Ṣūfīs or marabouts, began to proliferate in the countries of North Africa. Even though saint worship has always been frowned upon as shirk, or polytheism, by more scripturally minded, orthodox Muslims (Doumato, 2000), belief in the miraculous barakah of saints, the formation of cults involved in the veneration of such saints, and the subsequent movement of thousands of miracle-seeking pilgrims to and from saints' shrines are considered to be among the major hallmarks of North African Islam. In short, the ethnomedical treatments for infertility alone in one Middle Eastern country are amazingly diverse and complex, suggesting the richness of popular healing beliefs and practices in this part of the world. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures, "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 12 (1988): 85–112. Middle Eastern Americans, overall, share visible physical characteristics, history in the region as well as in the U.S., religious traditions, including Mizrahi and Sephardic Judaism, Eastern Christianity, and Islam, along with a rich cultural heritage of common values, sensibilities in art, food, music, epic stories, etc. In the early twenty-first century in the Middle East, there are two recurrent features of evil eye belief and practice that are relevant to a discussion of health and healing. Spiritual healing. Amulets often consist of small pieces of paper, sometimes folded, upon which indecipherable formulas or religious verses have been inscribed by a shaikh bil-barakah or quasi-religious male healer. From their beginnings in the tenth century, these cults were involved in healing, especially among the poor and among women. State-of-the-art new hospital complexes and hi-tech equipment, along with plenty of well-qualified staff, cater for the rising prospects of national citizens. "New Spells for Old: Expectations and Realities of Western Medicine in a Remote Tribal Society in Yemen, Arabia." . The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … "Ziyaret : Gender, Movement, and Exchange in a Turkish Community." Whereas biomedicine is viewed for the most part as being ḥalāl, or compatible with Islamic doctrine, many alternative healing practices are considered ḥaram by religiously literate Muslims and conservative Islamists (so-called fundamentalists), who see these practices as being "against God," "against the religion," or "like believing in something besides God." Sociological Perspectives, Health and Disease: III. Early, Evelyn A. Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. Identification. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. For example, some Latino/Hispanic families believe in folk illnesses such as empacho (gastrointestinal discomfort), susto (a form of panic attack), or mal de ojo (evil eye). Health care organizations must make available easily understood Choice and Ambiguity in Morocco's Pluralistic Medical System." CHARACTERISTICS OF MANY TRIBES. Inhorn, Marcia C. "Kabsa (a.k.a. Provo, Utah, 1983. "Ethno-Ophthalmology in the Egyptian Delta: An Historical Systems Approach to Ethnomedicine in the Middle East." x���rܶ��_��#�؊$��d��I�$uS�$���탬�w������@��y7���3��YA@ T\km�����~Wx"�\'�ć�؋��j`��Ч�'�u-ϊ#'������ʓ�'N�Kh�IS�ixvYz���G��8�)O&f='H��'V��V�%+��:�����ɳ7��td�G����wc�@X7+��������������\��bG Islam. Bearing this medical modernity in mind, it is also important to acknowledge that popular healing traditions still exist in the Middle East, providing a less expensive alternative to biomedicine among rural populations and the urban underclass, as well as a spiritual connection to Islam and to earlier literate medical traditions in the region. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Biegman, Nicolaas H. Egypt: Moulids, Saints, Sufis. Religion in the cultures of the Middle East. In the neighboring countries of the Arab Gulf and Levant (Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan), ḥukamā ʿarabi (Arabic doctors) may provide a variety of herbal, spiritual, and other physical remedies for difficult afflictions, such as male infertility and impotence, sometimes operating out of their own clinics and charging high prices for their services. Ottawa, 1980. To counter these various etiological possibilities, lower-class infertile women often undertake relentless "quests for conception," in which they engage simultaneously in arduous ethnomedical and biomedical therapeutic rituals (Inhorn, 1994a). These are some of the public health issues the region has to deal with today. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Well-equipped and well-staffed for a relatively small population, there are around 70 hospitals and 150 clinics, making up a competent health care infrastructure. As suggested by this great variety of popular healers, ethnomedical beliefs about the causes of ill health and its treatment are multifaceted and complex in the Middle East, defying easy categorization. ." HEALTH CARE BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS OF MIDDLE EASTERN CULTURAL GROUPS . "Spiritual Magnetism: An Organizing Principle for the Study of Pilgrimage." Medical professionals need a more informed understanding and consideration of the rich and diverse array of beliefs, expectations, preferences, and behavioral makeup of the social cultures of these patients to ensure that they are providing the best and most comprehensive care possible. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. In this belief, anything that provokes jealousy in another gives the jealous person the power to cause illness or misfortune for the lucky person or family. Misconception of Middle Eastern Culture and Religion | Melika Rahmani | TEDxJMU Melika is a student at James Madison University. For example, in Arabic-speaking northern Sudan, where zār is actively practiced, infertile women suffering from poor self-images are the primarily members of the zār cult. Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures It arose as a formal discipline in the wake o…, PRONUNCIATION: soo-duh-NEEZ To take one example from the Middle East, Egyptian ethnomedical beliefs about the causes of infertility range from humidity to sorcery and include the possibilities of an open back, a shock, a polluting entrance, an angered spirit-sister under the ground, and the ultimate cause, which is always God's will. The Evil Eye: A Casebook. Social Science and Medicine 28 (1989): 381–388. History of the Concepts, Health and Disease: II. As any visitor to a souk anywhere in the Middle East will see, Western, allopathic medicine exists alongside a continuing belief in traditional medical practices, such as herbalism, in a synthesis that precedes the contemporary West's interest in integrating scientific and complementary systems of … Inhorn, Marcia C. Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt. "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures London, 1969. Mushāhara ) and Threatened Fertility in Egypt." Prophetic and Ṣūfī healing traditions continue to flourish in many parts of the Middle East, particularly in the countries of North Africa. Furthermore, as Manfred Ullman (1978) has argued, many of the ḥadīth (sayings and traditions of the prophet Muḥammad), upon which prophetic medicine was supposedly based, were actually inauthentic, prescribing pre-Islamic folk practices that were later reinterpreted using concepts from yunāni medicine. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. The procedure is painful, burning the skin and leaving a permanent scar. Middle Eastern culture is very broad since it not only includes countries in Asia but also in Africa. It is these popular healing traditions and their connection to Islam that represent the substance of this brief essay. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), depression is the most common mood disorder, characterized by feelings of sadness and loss of interest. Myntti, Cynthia. Walker, John. Middle East culture and beliefs to pray several times a day, including while at work. Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. Underwood, Peter, and Zdenka Underwood. What effects might a civil war have on a population's mental health? "The Rise of Female Healers in the Middle Atlas, Morocco." In The Evil Eye: A Casebook, edited by Alan Dundes, pp. ... cultural health beliefs and practices and preferred language. For this reason, they provide notable examples. Health Care Providers' Handbook on Muslim Patients is a 22-page document prepared by Queensland Health in Australia. The Middle Eastern Health Inequality Paradox and the Gender Obesity Gap (2018) between Muslim/Middle Eastern patients and medical providers. Cautery is reportedly practiced in Morocco, Sudan, Yemen, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and among Palestinian Bedouins in Israel. In Saudi Arabia, cautery has also been used historically as a favored technique to chase malevolent spirits causing emotional or physical illness out of the body, including spirits causing madness (Doumato, 2000). 86–106. Filipino Americans who have been in the U.S for a long time are more acculturated to the American health system than those who recently migrated. El Sendiony, M. F. "The Problem of Cultural Specificity of Mental Illness: The Egyptian Mental Disease and the Zar Ceremony." El Messiri Nadim, Nawal. Saints of the Atlas. Despite this prophetic denouncement, both cupping and cautery are found widely throughout the Middle Eastern region in the early twenty-first century. In South Asia, for example, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Sindhis, Hazaras, Tajiks, and other groups are in constant conflict. The essentially "female character" of local pilgrimage in the Middle East (Betteridge, 1983)—and men's accompanying embarrassment and even disdain regarding this activity—has been noted by a number of scholars working in various regions of the Middle East (Crapanzano, 1973; Doumato, 2000; Dwyer, 1978; Mernissi, 1977; Tapper, 1990). Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. According to Doumato (2000), in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century the zār cult could be found virtually everywhere in the Arabic-speaking world and was integrated into the lives of women of all social classes. Getting God's Ear: Women, Islam, and Healing in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. In the modern era, … While the United States has long been considered to be a nation of immigrants, the bulk of the newcomers during most of the nation's history were from the various European cultures with … Health and Wholeness In Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination, edited by Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori, pp. The author describes health beliefs and practices of the Arab Muslim population in the United States. Mind-body-spirit integration. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.
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