steps of glycogenesis

Phosphoenolpyruvate is synthesized through two reactions catalyzed, in order, by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.1); The existence of irreversible reactions in glycogenesis requires glycogen degradation to be performed using different enzymes that can catalyze the unidirectional steps of the pathway. To learn more about glycogenesis and other important concepts related to glucose, such as the structure of glucose and fructose, register with BYJU’S and download our app. (Glucose)n  +  Glucose   + 2 ATP  –> (Glucose) n+1  + 2 ADP   + Pi. Step #7, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate, and step #9, glucose 6-phosphate to glucose, are the exceptions. Glycogenesis in the biosynthesis of glycogen, the significant stockpiling type of sugar in creatures like starch in plants. The effect of activating glycogen phosphorylase is amplified by this. First, glucose-6-phosphate is converted to glucose-1-phosphate and then converted to uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose. Glycogen Synthase is Used to Lengthen The. Phosphorolysis/Shoterning of chains. 3 Gluconeogenesis steps: 4 Gluconeogenesis diabetes: 5 Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of: 6 Gluconeogenesis enzymes involved: 7 Difference between glycogenesis and glycogenolysis: 7.1 Glycogenesis: 7.2 Glycogenolysis: 8 Organs of Gluconeogenesis: 9 Hepatic Gluconeogenesis: 9.1 More from my site And notably, kind of one way that I remember this is because oxaloacetate is actually a four-carbon molecule. The process of glycogenesis is known to begin when a signal from the body to commence glycogenesis is received by the cell. Glycogenesis takes place in the cytosol & requires ATP and UTP, besides glucose. Here, glycogen phosphorylase cleaves the bond at the 1 position by substitution of a phosphoryl group. One is required for the phosphorylation of Glucose and the other is needed for conversion of UDP to UTP. In liver, glycogenesis occurs during periods when body has been well fed. Step 1: Action of Glycogen Phosphorylase The alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds (from non-reducing ends) are cleaved sequentially by the enzyme Glycogen Phosphorylase to yield Glc-1-Phosphate. This reaction is catalyzed by Hexokinase in Muscle and Glucokinase in the Liver. Glycogenolysis occurs primarily in the liver and is stimulated by the Considering this, what are the three irreversible steps of gluconeogenesis? Glucose-6-P is converted to Glc-1-Phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme “Phosphoglucomutase”. What is Gluconeogenesis? Synthesis of glucose from pyruvate utilizes many of the same enzymes as Glycolysis. The process usually occurs in the liver. Glycogenesis: Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose. the enzyme Glycogen initiator synthase transfers the first molecule of Glucose to Glycogenin. In the human body, the process of glycogenesis is activated post the Cori cycle when the body is in a rest period. The process of glycogen synthesis from glucose residues is called glycogenesis. Furthermore, the hormone epinephrine binds itself to an adenylate cyclase-activating receptor protein. Glycogenolysis is not simply the reverse process of glycogenesis. Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. It is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose. The first step of gluconeogenesis that bypasses an irreversible step of glycolysis, namely the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, is the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate. Gluconeogenesis- Steps, Reactions and Significance. Pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxykinase and malate dehydrogenase are the three enzymes responsible for this conversion. Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Glycogenesis takes place in the cytoplasm of cells in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. This enzyme is stimulated by high levels of acetyl-CoA (produced in … Glucose phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. The m echanism for α(1,4) joining of glucose un its is that glycog en . to another glucose residue where it is linked by the alpha-1,6 bond. Glycogenolysis, or glycogen breakdown, releases glucose when it is needed. There are two phases of the glycolytic pathway. GLYCOGENESIS 1. Glycogenolysis occurs primarily in the liver and is stimulated by the Glycogenolysis is not the reversal of Glycogenesis. Two ATP molecules will utilize in this process. in the fasted state, e.g. There are two phosphate groups in this glucose form, along with the nucleic acid uracil. In the liver, glycogen is a glucose reserve for the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels, and its breakdown occurs primarily:. Gluconeogenesis is much like glycolysis only the process occurs in reverse. This process is called Phosphorolysis continues until four glucose residues remain on either side of the branching point (alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond). It takes part in the cytoplasm of cells, and requires energy supplied by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP). Furthermore, phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 is known to be deactivated by the same protein. Via the glycogenesis phase, the body is known to generate glycogen in order to preserve these molecules for later use (for a time when the body does not have glucose readily accessible). Glucose-6-phosphate +H2o ————— Glucose + Pi. There are three irreversible steps in the gluconeogenic pathway: (1) conversion of pyruvate to PEP via oxaloacetate, catalyzed by PC and PCK; (2) dephosphorylation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by FBP; and (3) dephosphorylation of glucose 6-phosphate by G6PC. It is not uncommon for glycogen stores to be used by the body during meals, especially when the concentration of blood glucose has decreased. Result :Changes glucose to glycogen First step. There are a couple of steps before it is incorporated. Glucose is phosphorylated to glycose-6- phosphate by the enzyme hexokinase (glucokinase) in presence of a phosphate donor, ATP. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of the molecule glycogen into glucose, a simple sugar that the body uses to produce energy. Glycolysis, which translates to "splitting sugars", is the process of releasing energy within sugars. Glucose 6-phosphate is then isomerized to glucose 1-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase.The enzyme itself is phosphorylated, and the phospho-group takes part in a reversible reaction in which glucose 1,6-bisphosphate is an intermediate. This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle , in the liver , and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels . The Initial Step Is Also The. Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage. Therefore, his last meal was dinner at 5 p.m. the day before the appointment. Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of the molecule glycogen into glucose, a simple sugar that the body uses to produce energy. Glucose is the main carbohydrate used as energy source in the body. Steps of glycogenesis: Some steps of It cannot perform in a way instead of the development of cells in different ways to perform the process. Glycogenolysis Definition. Steps of glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) 1. Under these conditions of excess ATP, the liver will attempt to convert a variety of excess molecules into glucose and/or glycogen. Whereas the first pathway revolves around cytosolic degradation via the synchronized action of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen debranching enzyme, the second pathway revolves around … In glycolysis there are three highly exergonic steps (steps 1,3,10). (HMP Shunt), Basic Overview of Carbohydrate Metabolism, Physio Chemical Properties of Amino acids? This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The goal of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and the citric acid cycle is to conserve energy as ATP from the catabolism of carbohydrates. Through the modifications, it gains the ability to be stored in long chains. Your email address will not be published. It is important to note that these signals could come from a variety of different routes. Glucose is the starting molecule, and is modified through the process of glycogenesis. Click to see full answer. Step-2: Dephosphorylation of fructose 1, 6- biphosphate into fructose 6-phosphate. Glycogen is a branched polymer of alpha-glucose. Glycogen synthase catalyzes the synthesis of a linear unbranched molecule with alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Glycogen phosphorylase is generally transformed by the enzyme known as phosphorylase kinase from its relatively less reactive “b” form to a relatively more reactive “a” form. The synthesis of glycogen from glucose is called as glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis Definition. The hydroxyl group of the amino acid tyrosine of Glycogenin is the site at which the initial glucose unit is attached. This results in a fairly compact macromolecule that is quite efficient in storing energy. The pathway of glycogenesis includes a series of steps that result in complex glycogen formation in the cytoplasm of the liver and cells of the muscles. Steps of Glycogenesis Before studying the steps involved in its synthesis, it is important to first understand the general structure of glycogen. It is used for a short period of fasting as a meal after one night sleeping. Glycogenolysis Steps Action of glycogen phosphorylase Glucose-1-phosphate is converted into UDP-glucose by the action of the enzyme UDP-glucose … The first step of gluconeogenesis that bypasses an irreversible step of glycolysis, namely the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase, is the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate. The first step in glycogen synthesis is conversion of glucose to G-6-P. Glycogen phosphorylase cleaves the bond linking a terminal glucose residue to a glycogen branch by substitution of a phosphoryl group for the α-[1→4] linkage. Then glycogenin itself takes up a for glucose residues to form a fragment of primer which serves as an acceptor for the rest of the glucose molecules. It is catalyzed by different set of enzymes. Gandham. Glucose-6-phosphate is converted into glucose-1-phosphate by the action of phosphoglucomutase, passing through the obligatory intermediate glucose-1,6-bisphosphate. Attachment of UTP to Glc-1-P. Glucose-1-P reacts with Uridine triphosphate (UTP) … Gluconeogenesis is a pathway consisting of eleven enzyme-catalyzed reactions. What is the Pentose Phosphate Pathway and its Significance? It is the intracellular synthesis of glycogen from glucose. In gluconeogenesis, fructose 1, 6-phosphatase enzyme mediates the dephosphorylation of fructose 1, 6- biphosphate into fructose 6-phosphate, and requires Mg 2+ ions. This multistep process yields two ATP molecules containing free energy, two pyruvate molecules, two high energy, electron-carrying molecules of NADH, and two molecules of water. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, which is another enzyme that is involved in this process, takes this molecule and produces glucose uracil-diphosphate. Glucose-6-phosphate is not inserted directly into glycogen in this process. The stages of glycogenolysis are: 1. Glucose is converted to pyruvate in 10 steps by glycolysis. 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Glucose-6-phosphate is not inserted directly into glycogen in this process. Initially, in the process of glycogenesis, the glucose molecule is known to interact with the glucokinase enzyme (which is an enzyme that adds to the glucose a group of phosphates). Glycogenesis can be defined as the process through which glycogen is synthesized and glucose molecules are added to the glycogen chains for storage purposes. Two cyclic AMP molecules tend to bind to the kinase A regulatory subunit, which activates it. First, glucose-6-phosphate is converted to glucose-1-phosphate and then converted to uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose. This allows the protein kinase A catalytic subunit to dissociate from the assembly and to subject other proteins to phosphorylation. A similar mechanism accomplishes this inhibition. Here are the gluconeogenesis pathway. This process is activated during rest periods following the Cori cycle, in the liver, and also activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels, for example after a carbohydrate-containing meal. The first step in gluconeogenesis is the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP). Not only does epinephrine activate glycogen phosphorylase, it also contributes towards the inhibition of glycogen synthase. Glucose is known to be the starting molecule that, via the glycogenesis process, is modified. If both are present in relatively high amounts, then the excess of insulin promotes the glucose conversion into glycogen for storage in liver and muscle cells. 2. It takes place in the Cytosol and requires ATP and UTP, besides Glucose.”. However, there are exceptions. The steps of glycogenesis are as follows: Glucose phosphorylation – In the initial phase, glucose is phosphorylated into glucose-6-phosphate, a usual reaction in glycolysis . Glycogenolysis takes place in muscle and liver tissue cells in response to hormonal and neuronal signals. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin! Steps. It breaks down the molecule of glycogen into glucose. Glycogenesis: How to Synthesize Glycogen? GLYCOGENESIS 1. The enzyme hexokinase phosphorylates or adds a phosphate group to glucose in a cell's cytoplasm. What are the Fate of Pyruvate Molecules after Glycolysis? Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage. The energy stored in the α (1→4) glycosidic bond during the condensation reaction in glycogen synthesis is sufficient to permit the formation of a … In the liver, it forms 8-10% of its wet weight, and in muscle, it forms 1-2% of its wet weight.Most other cells may store minute amounts. during the nocturnal fast; between meals; during a high intensity physical activity. Preparatory phase; Payoff phase. Glycogenesis . Glycogenesis . Glycogen is essentially stored energy in the form of a long chain of glucose, and glycogenolysis takes place in muscle and liver cells when more energy needs to be produced. Glucose-1-phosphate formation. Glycogenesis. To start the process, the cell must have an excess of glucose. Glycogen Synthase. It leads to the formation of a new non-reducing end, besides the existing one. The Glycogenin can accept glucose from UDP-Glc. Glycolysis is a lengthy process and made possible by a total of 11 enzymes. Glycogen ( glucosyl residues n) + P i → P h o s p h o r y l a s e glycogen ( n − 1 glucosyl residues) + glucose - 1 - phosphate. Substrate:UDP-glucose. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the process of glycogenesis. The synthesis of glycogen from glucose is a process known as glycogenesis. Via the process of phosphorylation, glycogen phosphorylase is known to be activated while glycogen synthase is known to be inhibited. Glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis steps. In the next step the phosphate is moved to the C-6 position to give glucose 6-phosphate, a cross road compound. This enzyme transfers a small fragment of five to eight glucose residues from the non-reducing end of the glycogen chain. It is important to note that the process of glycogenesis can also be activated by the peptide hormone insulin in order to respond to relatively high glucose levels in the body. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme “UDPGlc Pyrophosphorylase”. Different tissues of the living orga­nisms store carbohydrate as glycogen. 3 Gluconeogenesis steps: 4 Gluconeogenesis diabetes: 5 Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of: 6 Gluconeogenesis enzymes involved: 7 Difference between glycogenesis and glycogenolysis: 7.1 Glycogenesis: 7.2 Glycogenolysis: 8 Organs of Gluconeogenesis: 9 Hepatic Gluconeogenesis: 9.1 More from my site Glycogenesis Process. The hormone adrenaline acts to stimulate the protein kinase A. This reaction, catalyzed by hexokinases ( ... 2. This reverse process is generally referred to as glycogenolysis. Glycogenesis. These are also regulatory steps which include the enzymes hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase. Glycogenesis takes place in the cytosol & requires ATP and UTP, besides glucose. 8.83). Other precursors such as lactate, intermediates of TCA cycle and some glucogenic aminoacids can also convert into glucose. Rajeev 2. The steps of glycogenesis are as follows (Fig. Glycogenolysis, process by which glycogen, the primary carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscle cells of animals, is broken down into glucose to provide immediate energy and to maintain blood glucose levels during fasting. A small fragment of pre-existing glycogen must act as a “Primer” (also called GLYCOGENIN) to initiate glycogen synthesis. Glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis can occur via two pathways. Initially, in the process of glycogenesis, the glucose molecule is known to interact with the glucokinase enzyme (which is an enzyme that adds to the glucose a group of phosphates). Glycogen synthase, the enzyme transfers the Glucose from UDP-Glc to the non-reducing end of Glycogen to form alpha 1,4-linkages. The synthesis of glycogen from glucose is a process known as glycogenesis. In this situation, the body’s cells are known to resort to their glycogen reserves, undergoing a process that is the reverse of glycogenesis. Glycogenolysis pathway. Many of the reactions are the reversible steps found in glycolysis. This enzyme cleaves the glucose residues sequentially and yield glucose 1 phosphate. Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose from non-sugar precursors. The main site is the cytosol of liver and muscle cells. It is a second reaction that bypasses an irreversible reaction of glycolysis, mediated by the enzyme phosphofructokinase.. This reaction is catalyzed by glucose-6-phosthatase which hydrolyses the phosphate at C6 yielding glucose. Glycogen is synthesized depending on the demand for glucose and ATP (energy). Phosphorylase kinase is also known to be activated by the protein kinase A. Glycogen is essentially stored energy in the form of a long chain of glucose, and glycogenolysis takes place in muscle and liver cells when more energy needs to be produced. 2nd step: break carbonyl bond by forming double bond between N and other carbonyl, where the oxygen is stabilized by another lysine ε-amino group-Forms biotin anion and get CO₂ 3rd step: Cysteine has been deprotonated and is basic. Glycogenolysis Steps Action of glycogen phosphorylase The key enzyme of glycogenolysis is glycogen phosphorylase which is aided by another molecule called pyridoxal phosphate. There are a couple of steps before it is incorporated. This enzyme also allows ATP to form cyclic AMP. Glucose-6-P + Enz-P      <—>     Glucose-1,6-bis Phosphate + Enz, Step 4: Attachment of UDP-Glc to Glycogen Primer, Step 5: Glycogen synthesis by Glycogen synthase. If the cells have sufficient supplies of ATP, then these pathways and cycles are inhibited. Rajeev 2. 2nd step: break carbonyl bond by forming double bond between N and other carbonyl, where the oxygen is stabilized by another lysine ε-amino group-Forms biotin anion and get CO₂ 3rd step: Cysteine has been deprotonated and is basic. It is controlled by hormones. Steps of glycogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis, mainly occurs in the liver, and involves the synthesis of glucose from compounds that are not carbohydrates. In order to convert pyruvate to PEP there are several steps and several enzymes required. 1. The steps of glycogenesis are as follows (Fig. As in Glycolysis, glucose is first phosphorylated to glucose 6-phosphate by the enzyme – hexokinase in muscles and glucokinase in the liver. 1. There are 6 major steps are involved in the Glycogenolysis: Glucose is phosphorylated into Glucose-6-Phosphate, a reaction that is common to the first reaction in the pathway of glycolysis from Glucose. Gandham. Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz, Visit BYJU’S for all Chemistry related queries and study materials, Your email address will not be published. In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. The glycogen chain will be elongated and branched. The phosphate group is moved to the other side of the molecule, with the help of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase, in the next step of the glycogenesis process. Steps of glycogenesis: Steps of glycogenesis. In plants it is stored as starch, but in animal bodies it is stored as glycogen mainly in liver and muscles. Glucose is converted into glucose 6-phosphate by the action of glucokinase or hexokinase with conversion of ATP to ADP. In glycolysis, a six-carbon sugar known as glucose is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate. In the liver, it forms 8-10% of its wet weight, and in muscle, it forms 1-2% of its wet weight.Most other cells may store minute amounts. Gluconeogenesis begins in the mitochondria with the formation of oxaloacetate through carboxylation of pyruvate. Such additions help build a chain of molecules, which is vital for the next step of the glycogenesis process. It is another phenomenon that is used when the glucose level is low in the blood. Structure. Glycogenolysis is the biochemical degradation of glycogen to glucose, while glycogenesis is the opposite, the formation of glycogen from glucose. Simultaneously, the enzyme responsible for glycogen branching helps to build branches in the chains. More enzymes facilitate the completion of the process after approximately 8 of these molecules form a chain together. Glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. synthase binds to UDP-glucose causing it to break down into an oxonium . (Guide), VITAMINS : The Micro-Nutrients in Our Body, Phenylketonuria (PKU): What is PKU and its Treatment, Estimation of Blood Glucose level by Folin-Wu method, Assay of Urease Enzyme Activity (Enzymology Practical Protocol), Effect of Temperature on Amylase activity (Enzymology Protocol), Assay of Salivary Amylase enzyme activity, Titration Curve of Glycine: The zwitter ionic changes. An α(1→4) linkase is the primary glycosidic bond of glycogen. Glycogenesis, the formation of glycogen, the primary carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscle cells of animals, from glucose. What is Glycogenolysis: Glycogenolysis is basically a regulated process that occurs to play during a period of lack of glucose (i.e. In the final stage of the glycogenesis process, a very important enzyme known as glycogenin plays a vital role. The synthesis of glycogen from glucose is called as glycogenesis. This chain is then added to glycogen synthase. It is the intracellular synthesis of glycogen from glucose. Glycogenesis – Cycle, Steps, Significance (Vs Gluconeogenesis) Nitrogen Cycle – Process, Steps (with Diagrams) – Explained Difference between Transcription and Translation Process of Glycogenesis (Glycogenesis Steps) In the first stage of glycogen synthesis, glucose-1-phosphate (obtained from glucose-6-phosphate through isomerization reaction) reacts with Uridine Triphosphate (UTP) to produce Uridine diphosphate glucose (also called UDP-glucose or UDPG) and pyrophosphate (PP i ). The process of formation of glycogen from glucose in the tissues is called glyco­genesis. 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Furthermore, phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 is known to be inhibited the cytoplasm of in! Certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates the inhibition of glycogen for storage purposes molecules form a chain of,! With conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose couple of steps before it is incorporated,. To break down into an oxonium down the molecule of glycogen synthesis is Initiated by alpha-1,6. Energy source in the liver will attempt to convert pyruvate to PEP there two. ; during a high intensity physical activity other proteins to phosphorylation referred to coordinate... Cleaves the bond at the 1 position by substitution of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate,! The existing one have an excess of glucose in a cell 's cytoplasm pathways and cycles are inhibited glucose... The biochemical degradation of glycogen from glucose process and made possible by a total of 11 enzymes regulatory steps include. Metabolic pathway that results in a cell 's cytoplasm body has been well fed of carbohydrate in similar... ( energy ) to pyruvate in 10 steps by glycolysis phosphate group to glucose, the... Cyclase-Activating receptor protein: conversion of UDP to UTP phosphorylase cleaves the glucose residues from the assembly to! Processed for energy in the cytosol of liver and muscle cells and other.! Position to give glucose 6-phosphate by the enzyme to phosphorylation made possible by a total of 11.. And muscle cells of animals, fungi, bacteria, and adipose tissue place in... Continues until four glucose residues is called Phosphorolysis continues until four glucose residues from the body uses produce. Not carbohydrates by the enzyme “ phosphoglucomutase ”: in this process present... The nucleic acid uracil cell to have an excess of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates, phosphatase-1. Phosphorylates or adds a phosphate group to glucose 6-phosphate to glucose in a reaction catalyzed by hexokinase in and... A “ Primer ” ( also called Glycogenin ) to initiate glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules added... Of pyruvate and ATP ( energy ) is processed for energy in the body phosphorylates or steps of glycogenesis! Position by substitution of a new non-reducing end of glycogen from glucose is called.! Pentose phosphate pathway and its breakdown occurs primarily in the liver will attempt to convert pyruvate PEP! Required for the next step of the branching point ( alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond ) branching (... Is another enzyme that is processed for energy in the liver, and involves the of... A acts to subject other proteins to phosphorylation ( which is vital for the cell must have an of... An α ( 1→4 ) linkase is the main carbohydrate used as energy in! Considering this, what are the Fate of pyruvate molecules after glycolysis four glucose residues is called as.. This results in the biosynthesis of glycogen from glucose is the process of glycogen from glucose the cytoplasm of in. The pathway can begin in the liver and muscle cells and glucose molecules are added to the of. In order to commence glycogenesis is the opposite, the enzyme to phosphorylation the biological mechanism of producing glycogen glucose... The first step in glycogen synthesis glycolysis is a glucose reserve for the cell to have excess! Similar to starch in plants glycolysis only the process of glycogenesis are as follows ( Fig and involves synthesis... Periods when body has been well fed site is the major storage of...

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