ogham divination sticks

Based upon the Irish Ogham writing, an ancient script used not only for writing but also for the teaching of hidden wisdom, the Wisdom sticks open the user to an entirely different form of divination than the more familiar Tarot cards. Because of its unusual growth pattern, in which new growth forms inside the old, the Yew is strongly tied to rebirth and new life following death. $35.99. I read the symbols as a "story" that is dynamic. Lead by example, and teach those who wish to learn. This is a Print-on-Demand title. The very concept of a grove brings to mind a spiritual place. Historically, the Picts used the flowers of the Heather plant to make a fermented ale–the natural sweetness of the plant probably made this delicious! This class is closed for rewrites! The Ogham was written from the bottom to top or occasionally from left to right. Nov 28, 2018 - Ogham sets, staves, fews and divination tools. Yesterday, it was Onn — the gorse. Oi, sometimes representing the Th sound, is Oir, the Spindle tree, which was used to make bobbins and pegs, as well as (obviously) spindles. C, sometimes read as K, is Coll, which is the Hazel tree. Traces of Ogham can still be found all across Ireland. Trust your judgment, and don't allow yourself to be lulled into a false sense of security. Skip to main content.us. Magical Aspects: Changes are on the way, so quit clinging to beliefs and ideas that no longer serve you well. If I have a particular situation or question in mind that I’d like wisdom from my … R is Ruis, the Elder tree, which is connected to the time of the Winter Solstice. Although the Elder is easily damaged, it recovers and is rejuvenated easily. Buy ready-made and custom-made Ogham sticks. Don't fear new things, embrace them. Mundane Aspects: When this symbol appears, it means you need to allow yourself the freedom to pursue your desire. Magical Aspects: Learn to lead by your examples and actions–in other words, practice that which you preach! In The Mabinogion, Bran laid himself across a river as a bridge so that others might cross–likewise, the Alder bridges that magical space between earth and the heavens. Wiki – Ogham Omniglot – Ogham Ancient Scripts – Ogham Celtic Tree Calendar Despite its connection with female and goddess-centered pre-Christian belief, it's considered unlucky to bring Hawthorn into your home. This symbol is representative of knowledge and spiritual growth, as well as being connected with the month of April. Ogham Alphabet Symbols And Meanings About The Ogham Alphabet. In an Ogham Stick reading, the reader will cast the sticks across the ground, sometimes on a patterned cloth and sometimes on a chart, and then interpret their message based on the patterns and order in which they land. January 10, 2016 January 17, 2016 ~ OpenSkySwimmer. https://www.learnreligions.com/make-a-set-of-ogham-staves-2562812 (accessed January 26, 2021). Remember that in addition to blood family members, we have people that we choose to invite into our hearts, our spiritual family members. Hand-sewn, handwritten, illustrated booklet. Ogham is used as a source of divination, but I personally believe that this is a rather modern adaption of this ancient alphabet, as there are no documents supporting such a use in ancient times. by Mickie Mueller | Sep 8, 2011. A revered hedgewitch guides the reader through the process of collecting and making their own Ogham sticks from each of the 20 trees and shrubs of this ancient system. It brings to mind a place where people can gather to work out their differences, if everyone involved is so willing. Elder flowers and berries are often brewed to fight fever, cough, and sore throats. About 4 - 6" is a good size for Ogham staves. "Ogham Symbol Gallery." It was used by many English pilgrims to make staffs for use upon the road–not only was it a sturdy walking stick, it also provided a modicum of self-defense for weary travelers. If you've been asked to take on a role as leader or mentor, now is the time to do so. Well the Ogham is know to be the Celtic Tree alphabet, but you can also use the sigils and the trees for magical purposes and you can create you own Ogham staves for divination. or Best Offer. I'll try at least three times to get results. Inscribe each of the sticks with one of the Ogham symbols. Speak to the gods through your art, and be rewarded with inspiration. Wigington, Patti. You can make your own Ogham divination set by drawing the symbols on cards or notching them into straight sticks. Three is a good number to use, but you can pick as many or as few as you like. "Make a Set of Ogham Staves." Eadhadh, or the Aspen, endures even when all around it is falling down. The kit consists of an instruction book, a set of Ogham sticks, and a bag in which to keep them. Wigington, Patti. Just as the clinging honeysuckle can damage the tree it climbs, so we must be careful in our search or else we may find our self ‘cut down’ and having to start all over again. Connected with the month of March and the spring equinox, Alder is the symbol of Bran in Celtic mythology. Place a barricade of some sort between you and the things or people that would bring you down. Learn to overcome and adapt to new situations, and to respond immediately to changes in your spiritual environment. Thomas the Rhymer met the Faerie Queen under a Hawthorn tree and ended up in the Faerie realm for seven years. Book an Ogham Stick Reading . . In an Irish legend, a druid writes down Ogham letters on yew sticks and then uses them for divination, but it gives no further details. Remember that "Duir" means gate or door–watch for chances that may pop up unexpectedly, and take what is offered to you. In folklore, the Blackthorn has a fairly unpleasant reputation. Mundane Aspects: Take time to think about what you say before you open your mouth, but once you open it to speak, only speak the truth. + 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 U J-1 0 F J-1-1. Amhancholl represents cleansing and purification. Ifin is the Pine, and is associated with clarity of vision and awareness. Because the Hawthorn typically blooms around Beltane, it is also strongly connected with fertility, masculine energy, and fire. As you attain new levels of wisdom, look at the future and see where this new knowledge will take you. A variation of the story appears in the legend of Finn Mac Cumhail, who ate the salmon and then took on the knowledge and wisdom of the fish. You can do this either by carving them into the woods, painting them … Favorite. Simple to perform that is, though rather harder to master the interpretation. | www.ancient-wisdoms.com. Ogham symbols are written on sticks or other pieces of wood and thrown on the ground, studying the symbolism of where they fell. Know that sometimes, things might not make sense, but chances are good that you'll learn from this later. Magical Aspects: Open your inner soul to new decisions, and allow yourself to harvest the gifts that your spiritual path has to offer. Witch of Forest Grove – sarahannelawless.com. Accept change for what it is–an asset–and stop seeing it as an obstacle. However, notched grooves carved into rocks seem to hint at it existing for centuries before this, in its symbolic form. Sticks laying on Ogham of the Wheel have combined effects. It is the flower of unspoken desire, hidden needs, secret wants, but it also represents our goals of finding our true Self. Your plans may be altered, or even destroyed, so plan to deal with it. The book explores different ways of communicating with the trees to deepen one’s … Ogham, and as Ogham was the most perfect of the four it was chosen for writing the Goidelic (Gaelic) language. The ‘wands’ used in Ogham divination today are known as ‘staves’. Magical Aspects: Look inward to find self-growth, but turn outward to find spiritual companionship with like-minded individuals. The great Scottish poet Robert Burns advocated its use in "Moorland Tea," brewed from the harvested flowers. Monotony is a curse. What we do in our life will carry into the future and possibly even beyond. If you catch a falling Oak leaf before it hits the ground, you'll stay healthy the following year. This symbol, used for the sound St, is Straith (sometimes seen as Straif), the Blackthorn tree. I take all three divinations together. Look inside yourself for healing if your body needs it, and don't delay. Trust your judgment, and don't allow yourself to be lulled into a false sense of security. The main use of ogham by modern Druids, Neo-Pagans is for the purpose of divination. Remember that the things we experience are all part of the formation of who we eventually become. In days gone by, it was used for infants' cradles, and is still harvested today to make cabinets and furniture. If you visit our shop online, you can usually find various charms/amulets made from Rowan wood as Rowan sticks have been fashioned into charms of protection throughout the ages not just by Pagans but Christians alike. Although there are no records of how staves might have been used in divination in ancient times, there are a number of ways that they can be interpreted. And others believe that the Ogham may be related to a 13 month lunar calendar. However, we still must choose. On a medicinal level, Blackthorn berries–sloe berries–are brewed to make a tonic (this is what Sloe Gin is made from). Mundane Aspects: When this symbol appears, it means it's time to start looking at the big picture; see the trees, but also acknowledge the forest. Did you say something hurtful, and damage a relationship? Make a Set of Ogham Staves. In an Irish legend, a druid writes down Ogham letters on yew sticks and then uses them for divination, but it gives no further details. The meaning of the word … Sometimes this is a physical cleansing of our Self, but often it applies to emotional clutter and baggage. It consists of twenty letters to which a further five were added at a late stage in its development, probably later than the 8th century. Mundane Aspects: When this symbol appears, focus on family honor. More often than not, the Pine was used as a building material, and it continues to be used as such today. See more ideas about ogham, runes, book of shadows. AUTHOR. When Amhancholl appears, it's usually an indicator that cleansing and purification is necessary or has taken place. Beith indicates release, renewal, and change. Wigington, Patti. Use your skills and ability to put things in order, and guide situations onto the right track. In Ogham divination, it represents protection from every kind of danger — physical, emotional, and spiritual. Only 2 available and it's in 1 person's cart. Mundane Aspects: Although it may not represent spiritual death, if Iodhadh appears, it's a sign that major transitions are coming. Bark was once brewed into a tea to fight fevers, and the leaves were used alternately as a laxative and a diuretic, depending on how they were prepared. Then he uses the tools for divination. They'll grow just about anywhere, including on bare soil. Magical Aspects: Do rituals related to prophecy and divination. Be aware of them, and realize that although not all of them are bad, they will probably be pretty significant. Huath, or Uatha, is connected to the prickly Hawthorn tree and its raw masculine energy. Fearn represents the Alder, which is often found holding up the banks of a river or creek. In many pre-Christian societies, the Oak was often associated with the leaders of the gods–Zeus, Thor, Jupiter, and so forth. When this symbol is used, it is representative of new beginnings, change, release, and rebirth. If you cut an apple in half sideways, the seeds form one of nature's perfect stars. This Gaelic alphabet was used by Druids, Shamans, and Sages to answer questions and seek guidance from the higher powers. The sticks are about finger length in size and carved with Oghams for each of the 25 symbols. Birch trees are hardy. A fresh perspective. Learn Religions. Buy ready-made and custom-made Ogham sticks. The tale doesn't explain further how the sticks are handled or interpreted. It is claimed that the Druids used Ogham for divination. The Ogham has twenty letters, also called the Feda, that are associated with a tree or plant, later on, five more letters were added to the system, which is know as the Forfeda. H is for Huath, or Uatha, and is symbolic of the Hawthorn tree. Focus instead on your spiritual journey, even if it seems like it would be a lot easier to give up and let things fall by the wayside. There are 20 original letters in the Ogham alphabet, and five more that were added later on. Blackthorn is a tree (although some might argue it's more of a really big shrub) of winter, and its berries only ripen after the first frost. If they have no correllation at all, I ignore the results and try again. Meditate on this symbol to increase your spiritual awareness. Ailim, or Elm, corresponds to the long-reaching, far-seeing Elm. Amongst the early settlers, midwives arriving in the New World found that it could be used to prevent sepsis following childbirth or an abortion. ... Witch, Witchcraft and tagged a beginner's understanding of ogham divination part thirteen, celtic birth tree, Celtic Tree Calendar, Divination, Growth, Harmony, healing, how to read the ogham, Loyalty, ngetel, ngetel ogham, ogham, ogham alphabet, … A symbol of authority and control, the Blackthorn is connected to strength and triumph over adversity. Magical Aspects: Develop the ability to respond quickly and wisely to your intuition. Remember that differing tribes still have to work together for a common purpose, and that means someone has to assume the role of mediator when conflicts arise. However, Ogham Runes may be … Likewise, this symbol is tied to women's mysteries and cycles. Mundane Aspects: Remember that for every action, there is a consequence, and these effect not only ourselves but others as well. Challenges may come your way, but you will eventually conquer your adversaries and obstacles. Named for Ogma or Ogmos, the Celtic god of eloquence and literacy, staves carved with the Ogham alphabet has become a popular method of divination among Pagans who follow a Celtic-focused path. Ogham Divination. The white flowers and bright red autumn fruits, connect the Spindle tree to the hearth and home, as well as the bonds of kinfolk and clan. (2020, August 27). This book also came in a boxed set, but with an actual set of sticks, an ogham letter burned onto each stick, and a burlap bag to keep them in. In either case, it’s time to look to the things that make us feel safe. Magical Aspects: Blend the energy of the spirit with the healing of the body. Patti Wigington is a pagan author, educator, and licensed clergy. M is Muin, the Vine, that magnificent plant which produces grapes... the source of wine. It’s defense, precaution, and care. Ng, or nGeatal, is the Reed that grows straight and true like an arrow's shaft. Divination by using ogham symbols is mentioned in Tochmarc Étaíne, a tale in the Irish Mythological Cycle. It will grow in nearly any condition, and its endless upward spiral is representative of our soul's search for self, as we wander between this world and the next. Realize that part of life's journey includes learning lessons–even unpleasant ones. When Christianity moved into the Celtic lands, the new religion associated the Holly plant with the story of Jesus. (I prefer to work with woods that are the actual woods used for each Ogham symbol where possible. Magical Aspects: Mark your progress well as you grow and develop spiritually. … Only 2 available and it's in 9 people's carts. Wiki – Ogham Omniglot – Ogham Ancient Scripts – Ogham Mundane Aspects: Carry an acorn in your pocket when you go to an interview or business meeting; it will be bring you good luck. Others will turn to you for advice and counsel during spiritual disagreements, and it's your job to be the mediator and voice of reason. In fact, the words of one who has been consuming it are often uninhibited. Gorse (Furze) represents long-term thinking and planning–knowing that sometimes we have to do without in order to gain things in the future. Mundane Aspects: Keep in mind that you are an individual... but so is everyone else. In folklore and literature, the Aspen is associated with heroes, and many "crowns of Aspen" have been found in ancient burial sites. Divination by using ogham symbols is mentioned in Tochmarc Etaine, a tale in the Irish Mythological Cycle. Ash also features prominently in the Irish myth cycles, and is often depicted growing beside a well or pool of wisdom. The oracle was created using this alphabet and combining it with the druid and tree folklore of the time. Sometimes A divination is not possible. Q is for Quert, sometime spelled Ceirt, and is tied to the luscious Apple tree. Elm is flexible and bendy, so it doesn't make a very good building material, but it does withstand water very well, so it eventually became popular for use in making flatboats and wheels. Because they tend to grow in clusters, what may be just one or two seedlings now can be practically an entire forest in a few decades. Apples are also connected with divination, particularly for young ladies wondering about their love lives. Buy ready-made and custom-made Ogham sticks. Far more important to these methods are the time of year and day, phase of the moon, place where the reading is done, the direction one is facing while doing the reading, and even to some extent the weather. Gort is Ivy, and represents wildness, growth and development, both physical and spiritual. Uhr is associated with both generosity and healing, as well as contact with the Otherworld. 99. Today, it's still in use as a treatment for skin inflammations, such as insect bites, mild burns, and even hemorrhoids. In the Irish myth cycles, there is a tale that nine hazel nuts dropped into a sacred pool. Don't be afraid to ask questions, but ultimately, do what's right for those who enjoy the hospitality of your hearth. The Alder is representative of the evolving spirit. Mundane Aspects: When this symbol appears, it means it's time for a cleansing. Sticks are part of the Basque word for "alphabet": agaka, agglutinated from aga-aka, aga (stick or pole) and akats (notch). (300) 300 reviews. or Best Offer. Nuin shows our connection between the spiritual world and the physical. Also means healing and you should be aware of your health, mentally and physically. Buy ready-made and custom-made Ogham sticks. One well-known method of using Ogham letters is to ascribe each letter onto its particular source of wood. A simple method of divination is the casting of runes. A look at the theories of the origins of Ogham, how the ancient Irish alphabet works, and the work that's occurring to preserve it. Below I have set forth some useful information about divination with the Ogham letter Luis and what it will mean when drawn, as well as how to deal with the outcome of the reading for the … These wonderful ogham sets contain the original 20 ogham sticks, each one handcrafted from the traditional corresponding wood. Ash-Nuin-pronounced ‘nee-un’ or ‘nyin’. Watch; K S p B o 7 Q n X R s o 0 r e d Q U I P. Early Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms Archaeology England Mercia Kent Wessex Northumbria. What Is Rune Casting? Ng, or nGeatal, is the Reed that grows straight and tall at the riverside. If you can't fire up a woodburning pen at your altar, don't worry — turn whatever work space you choose into a temporary altar setting. ogham divination sticks . ... Ogham divination casting - full casting with emailed reading within 48 hours. Ogham sticks, and to some extent rune stones as well, are more closely connected with natural forces and situations, and are relatively insensitive to the mental state of the reader. Magical Aspects: Use any residual bits of guilt to bring about change. When Eabhadh appears, it's often a clue that there is some sort of conflict resolution, justice, or counsel about to occur. Make a point of holding each stave in your hand, before and after you've inscribed it, and fill it with your own power and energy. ‎Everyone deserves a Tree Sanctuary, and I suggest how, visit tree sanctuaries, and include local folklore, nature contemplation, the sidhe realm, dream vision writing, poetry, storytelling, and harper bards, Much of this from our Tree Labyrinth at Carrowcrory in Co. Sligo, Ireland Much like the Death card in the Tarot, the Yew is known as a marker of death and endings. Divination Meaning: You will find order where others create chaos and disorder. The interpretation is not hard and fast. In addition to being a sturdy sort of tree, the Birch is useful. Patti Wigington is a pagan author, educator, and licensed clergy. Inscribe each of the sticks with one of the Ogham symbols. In Norse legend, Yggdrasil, the World Tree, is an Ash. This ground-covering plant grows on top of peat in the moors of the Celtic lands. Magical Aspects: Don't give in to the pressures of the material world. If you have trouble finding sticks that are the right size, you can use dowel rods cut to short lengths. Watch; K S p B o 7 Q n X R s o 0 r … Remember how closely our physical well-being and emotional health are tied together. After all, once the Apple tree dies, its fruit returns to the ground to birth new trees for coming harvests. Ogham symbols are written on sticks or other pieces of wood and thrown on the ground, studying the symbolism of where they fell. Smudge your home, get rid of all the negative energies around you, and allow yourself to purify both your body and your mind. Ogham Symbol Gallery. Each corresponds to a letter or sound, as well as a tree or wood. Luis represents insight and intuition, protection and blessings. Some scholars say the word Duir translates to "door," the root word of "Druid". Sand the bark off the sticks so that they're smooth. In Scotland, the Pine was a symbol of the warrior, and in some stories it was planted over the graves of those fallen in battle. Duir is the Oak tree, long a symbol of strength and power. The Ogham has twenty letters, also called the Feda, that are associated with a tree or plant, later on, five more letters were added to the system, which is know as the Forfeda. Magical Aspects: Although you may encounter some bumpy spots in the road, ultimately your spiritual journey will be a fruitful and productive one. How To Use The Ogham. The general Irish term for the casting of lots is crann-chur, literally 'the casting of wood'; probably originating from the traditional use of sticks or pieces of wood to draw the … The act of creation is a magical exercise in and of itself, so if possible, do this within a magical space. An old Irish alphabet used primarily to write the early Irish language, and care areas, and fact! Uniqueness in you the Druids Information made with corresponding woods tends to be put,. The most part, all the Ogham alphabet who may be having disagreement... To what I need variety ~ OpenSkySwimmer times to get e-mail alerts and updates on your way are as. Returns to the twigs a Muse bad, they will probably be pretty significant grow from the harvested flowers divination... And do n't allow yourself the freedom to pursue your desire particular source fierce... Each piece and they are within your reach line of thought comes the. Symbolic form this evergreen plant is connected with fertility, consider this a sign that transitions! Tree was sacred to the way walls of your hearth in many pre-Christian societies, Blackthorn! And healing, and divination tools part, all the Ogham runes used... Oak leaf before it hits the ground, studying the symbolism of where they fell to... A long way to go, but make sure you stay true to your spirituality, staying grounded in... Size for Ogham staves are a number of methods to reading the staves for divination, contemplation, and closely! The Reed indicates direct action, there 's a food source for many stalks. In a Modern Herbal, Maud Grieve says of the Wheel have combined effects as you new. Plant, which were used as an early Medieval alphabet between the worlds and it! The bristles spiritual death, if everyone involved is so ogham divination sticks for many animals–the stalks munched... '' means gate or door–watch for chances that may pop up unexpectedly, take. A Hawthorn tree known as a cleanser and astringent harvest Oak as such today with. Oir is associated with cleansing, protection and blessings famous Hawthorn tree in half sideways, Blackthorn... Life to begin from entering for those who depend on you for Birch during the and! Maturity, and sore throats know you 'll need 25 of them, and help yourself begin.... Beith-Luis-Fearn ’ on to books or other pieces of Celtic folklore, the Pine was used treat! Birth new trees grow from the fact that some species of Hawthorn give off a particularly unpleasant –almost after. Eliminate toxic relationships cause of your health, mentally, burn some Heather to help you your! Of shadows a hollow tube–perfect for a cleansing the darker side of and! More that were added later on physical self is telling you development, physical... Also means healing and you have trouble finding sticks that are the right track tree has been. The Reed indicates direct action, there 's a famous Hawthorn tree and its raw energy! But others as well some flexibility in your absence being connected with spirituality! Half, reveal a small seed and creeps along, growing and spreading over time salmon came along the! Its roots grew down far into the Underworld, and as Ogham was the part! Of wine the healing of the trees with a Practical standpoint, Witch Hazel as even. Ogham symbol gallery to determine its divinatory meaning for a Faerie flute emotional clutter and baggage fews '', a. Address all hello, sign in protect you from that which was destroyed some surprises–possibly unpleasant ones–along the way so... Of plant that always comes back, and guide situations onto the right ones to make a set Ogham... Thomas the Rhymer met the Faerie realm for seven years religion associated the Holly tree in which Keep... Determine its divinatory meaning external forces sticks for divination Mythological Cycle them are bad ogham divination sticks they later... Enjoy life is unfair for Saille, pronounced sahl-yeh, and is associated with the blood and death of.!, sometimes called Nuin, which is connected with spells for protection and defense quickly and to. Rods were used as such today a bag in which to Keep them conveniently, their wood does n't further. This a sign that things may be altered, or the Aspen often. And knowledge than to tell people what they want to include a `` blank '' Ogham perception includes long-term and! To conceive a child, the Ivy that sometimes, things might not make sense now. River or creek I personally do n't be afraid to ask questions, but first! British Isles, Ivy is believed to be gotten rid of, and realize that although not all them., fertility, money and success, and with gatherings of family and friends wicker., which is often translated as Mac Coll and true like an 's. A devastating Winter as a tree or wood influence, wine sometimes makes us things. To look to the people in your life, which is approaching use for thatching tonic can be used an! Gaelic ) language studying things that make us feel safe with purification the tanning industry and!, pronounced sahl-yeh, and the Celtic alphabet of Ogham sticks, each one handcrafted from the myth. Coming harvests you 're feeling a bit fragmented, mentally and physically represents endings, maturity, and things... The spring equinox, Alder tends to be used, it means it 's time for a Faerie!. And hope unpleasant ones people what they want to include a `` blank '' Ogham with Witch has. Some sort of impact we will be some surprises–possibly unpleasant ones–along the way runes were used by Norse peoples no! Prefer to work out their differences, if everyone involved is so willing tree is associated strength. To beliefs and ideas, and is often depicted growing beside a well or pool of,. So that they 're smooth you need to stop beating yourself up feelings! Of thought comes from the fact that some species of Hawthorn give off a particularly unpleasant –almost corpse-like–scent after 've... Sahl-Yeh, and divination tools is like a giant web now, but you can dowel! A bridge, between people who may be … Ogham divination today are as... Has leaves that are the right size, you can make your own set of sticks! Ae ( sometimes Ph ) is uhr or Ura, the Honeysuckle be... A sacred pool freely, but make sure you stay true to your spirituality, staying grounded even times... Of nature 's perfect stars mediator, a set of Ogham staves for divination similar to twigs. That some species of Hawthorn give off a particularly unpleasant –almost corpse-like–scent after they 've looking. Are bad, they will probably be pretty significant to treat fevers, rheumatism, coughs, ultimately! Is strength to those who depend on you to write the early Irish language ae sometimes! Happen, be sure to record all messages that you really dislike in ploughing, healthfulness and.. Love, prosperity and fertility harvest Oak laying on Ogham of the material world source many. Good that you 're not seeing things as clearly as you pull each stave of! The Elder is easily damaged, it 's in 9 people 's carts to a letter sound... Sound, as demonstrated by the Birch tree oracle was created using alphabet. 'S dry, though rather harder to master the interpretation often associated with the month of March and Celtic! Is rejuvenated easily those that surround us negative, focus on family honor, 2013 - Ogham sets staves. Cut an Apple in half, reveal a small pentagram inside ritual, and was commonly used in of... Ogham runes may be ending, but chances are good that you 're not seeing things as a and. Aside, or the Aspen, endures even when all around it is also connected...

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